Chapter #30 Identifications
head of Committee of Public Information. He sent out 75,000 "four-minute men" to give patriotic speeches.
appointed by Wilson as leader of the War Industries Board to organize industry in the war effort.
Henry Cabot Lodge
was chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations committee, but Wilson and he despised one another.
James M. Cox
Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920.
Wilson’s idea that citizens should elect their own government without influences, part of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
Wilson wanted to establish this through his idea of League of Nations.
desire for a nation to return to generic forms of political, economic, and social influences.
German foreign secretary sent a secret telegram from Germany to Mexico. It was intercepted by British spies. Germany promised Mexico would regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona if they help defeat America.
The Fourteen Points laid out Wilson's idealistic goals, the most important one to Wilson was the establishment of the League of Nations.
League of Nations
A committee of nations that settled international conflicts peacefully. Wilson’s most desired point.
Committee on Public Information
Headed by Creel, purpose was to encourage patriotism in America in time of war.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Espionage Act of 1917 was enacted to prosecute spies. Sedition Act was to prosecute anyone who was thought to be in disloyal activity.
Industrial Workers of the World
a group that held the goal of creating an international labor union. The leader of the I.W.W. was William D. Haywood.
War Industries Board
headed by Taft to settle labor disputes and keep workers in their jobs.
granted nationwide women’s suffrage in 1920.
led by Herbert Hoover because of his efforts for Belgium. Encouraged voluntary donations of food for the war.
desired isolationism and discouraged the idea of forming a League of Nations. Led by William Borah and Hiram Johnson
Treaty of Versailles
was treaty that the “big four” forced Germany to sign as punishment. Heavy debt cause Hitler to eventually rise and take charge.
Chapter #30 Guided Reading Questions
War by Act of Germany
Know: "Peace without Victory," Unlimited Submarine Warfare, Arthur Zimmermann
1. What events led Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress to declare war?
Germans continued to sink US merchant ships and killing innocent lives after they promised not to. Then British spies intercepted the Zimmerman note which revealed Germany’s plan for Mexico to invade America.
Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned
Know: Jeannette Rankin
2. Name Wilson’s twin war aims. How did these set America apart from the other combatants?
Wilson wanted to join the war to establish a better place for democracy and free others under tyrannies. While others were fighting for power, America was fighting for democracy.
Wilson’s Fourteen Potent Points
Know: Fourteen Points
3. List several of Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
Wilson wanted to free the world of secret treaties, have freedom of the seas, reduce arms, remove economic barriers, and establish the League of Nations.
Creel Manipulates Minds
Know: Committee on Public Information, George Creel, Four-minute Men, The Hun, Over There
4. How were Americans motivated to help in the war effort?
People were encouraged to buy war bonds, women were encouraged to work in the factories, and for men to enlist in the army.
Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent
Know: Liberty Cabbage, Espionage Act, Sedition Act, Eugene V. Debs, William D. Haywood
5. How was loyalty forced during WWI?
By establishing the Espionage and Sedition acts, they are hindering the first amendment and not allowing freedom of speech. Many were also against German-related things, such as alcohol and music.
The Nation’s Factories Go to War
Know: Bernard Baruch, War Industries Board
6. Why was it difficult to mobilize industry for the war effort?
The idea of Laisse- Faire lead to the mobilization of industry to be very slow and monumental.
Workers in Wartime
Know: "Work or Fight," National War Labor Board, Wobblies
7. How did the war affect the labor movement?
Some did not support the war and refused to work. Others went on strikes to increase wages. The National War Labor Board then issued that those who do not work will be drafted into the army. Many were encouraged to work harder and women and blacks also wanted to hold jobs.
Suffering Until Suffrage
Know: NAWSA, 19th Amendment, Women’s Bureau
8. How did the war affect women?
It caused many to take their husbands’ positions in the factories and caused a split between those against and for the war. It encouraged Wilson to back up women’s suffrage and pass the Nineteenth Amendment.
Forging a War Economy
Know: Food Administration, Herbert Hoover, Meatless Tuesdays, Eighteenth Amendment, Heatless Mondays, Liberty Bonds
9. Did government become too intrusive in people’s lives during the war? Give examples to support your answer.
No, much was based on voluntary actions. Proproganda encouraged citizens to reduce their needs to help the war effort.
Making Plowboys into Doughboys
10. Was the government’s effort to raise an army fair and effective?
It was fair. The rich were not allowed to buy their way out, and many voluntarily enlisted for the war. They did the best they could in training the soldiers because they were sent overseas.
Fighting in France--Belatedly
11. How were American troops used in Russia?
They were used to prevent Russia from falling to Germany after Russia’s revolt.
America Helps Hammer the Hun
Know: Marshal Foch, John J. Pershing, Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Alvin York
12. Describe the effect of the American troops on the fighting.
They boosted morale and stopped German assault in Paris. They also supplied food along with the soldiers.
The Fourteen Points Disarm Germany
13. What role did America play in bringing Germany to surrender?
Wilson tried to appease the other three leaders and mitigated some debt in the Treaty of Versailles.
Wilson Steps Down from Olympus
Know: Henry Cabot Lodge
14. What political mistakes hurt Wilson in the months following the armistice?
Wilson broke the truce by personally appealing for a Democratic victory in Congressional elections of 1918. He also went to Paris alone, with infuriated the Republicans.
The Idealist Battles the Imperialists in Paris
Know: Vittorio Orlando, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, League of Nations
15. How did Wilson’s desire for the League of Nations affect his bargaining at the peace conference?
Prevented parceling out of the former colonies, and he had to compromise imperialism and his idealism.
Hammering Out the Treaty
Know: William Borah, Hiram Johnson, Irreconcilables
16. What compromises did Wilson make at the peace conference?
America promised to aid France in the event of another German invasion. He insisted that Fiume went to Yugoslavia. Also, he allowed Japan to keep German’s economic holding in China and return it later.
The Peace Treaty That Bred a New War
Know: Treaty of Versailles
17. For what reasons did Wilson compromise his 14 Points?
He compromised his 14 Points to get his League of Nations.
The Domestic Parade of Prejudice
18. Why was the treaty criticized back in America?
It crossed the Monroe Doctrine of isolationism and Washington’s advice of neutrality.
Some thought it was too soft, others harsh, and gave Britain too much power.
Wilson’s Tour and Collapse (1919)
19. What was the purpose and result of Wilson’s trip around the country when he returned to America?
It was to appeal to the people personally, as he had done before so successfully.
Defeat Through Deadlock
20. Why was the treaty finally rejected?
Lodge made changes to the Treaty, which Wilson disliked. He persuaded his followers to reject it at the voting. It never got passed.
The "Solemn Referendum" of 1920
Know: Warren Harding, James M. Cox, Normalcy
21. What did the results of the 1920 election indicate?
Harding won to Cox, 16 million to 9 million. Debs got 1 million votes.
The Betrayal of Great Expectations
22. How much should the U.S. be blamed for the failure of the Treaty of Versailles?
It is partly America’s fault, Wilson allowed too much to pass through in the treaty that made it so harsh. Also due to the hatred between Lodge and Wilson, which cause only hostility in politics.
Varying Viewpoints: Woodrow Wilson: Realist or Idealist?
Know: Realism, Idealism, Wilsonianism
23. To what extent was Wilson realistic when he called for a world of cooperation, equality and justice among nations?